Myanmar’s needs, Norway’s goals

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Peter SangEXPATRIATE MUSINGS: As part of his five-nation European tour, Myanmar President Thein Sein’s first stop this week is Norway, marking the first official visit ever by a head of state in Myanmar to the oil-rich nation with just 5 million inhabitants. Peter Sang, originally from Myanmar and now earning a master’s degree in Norway, stresses the need to resolve ethnic conflicts in his homeland, and wonders whether Myanmar’s needs are Norway’s priorities.

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President Thein Sein’s visit understandably comes as a reciprocal diplomatic relation after the first-ever visit to Myanmar by Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, who opened the Norwegian embassy in Yangon in November. For Myanmar’s government, however, this exchange alone is undoubtedly a huge step in light of its quest for long-awaited international recognition and active support to accelerate its reform process. For the last two years or so, Myanmar, as a result of rapid reform initiatives, has enjoyed praise and international support, attracting a series of heads of states to the once-pariah nation.

Any prosperity and democracy generated by the new reform process in Myanmar must be shared by all the people, like these photographed in 2010 during a visit by Norway's government minister in charge of foreign aid. PHOTO: Morten Møst

Norway’s foreign minister said Tuesday that prosperity generated by the new reform process in Myanmar must be shared by all the people. These were photographed in 2010 during a visit by Norway’s government minister in charge of foreign aid at the time. PHOTO: Morten Møst

President Thein Sein, advised by a flock of western intellectuals, must be aware of the important roles Norway plays internationally in relation to peace, development and humanitarian assistance. That is clearly another important reason for choosing Norway as his first stop on his European tour. Sein presumably has a number of important missions during his visit in Norway. During his three-day stay in Norway, the president will meet the king, the prime minister, the foreign minister, the government minister of industry and trade and some Norwegian technology giants. He is also scheduled to be interviewed by the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), a once-exiled Burmese media outlet now also operating inside Myanmar, and he will have an hour-long meeting with the Norwegian-Burmese community at the Literature House in Oslo.

In his meetings with Norwegian officials and business executives he will likely elaborate on the reforms that his government is making, appeal for more foreign aid and invite more business investments. Interestingly, the president confessed after an interview with the BBC Hardtalk program last October that he had overcome his fear of media. So he might also want to spend more time with media, including the Burmese, to speak about his vision and plan for his country. He should grab the chance and speak more, not only about his government reform plans but also about his personal feelings and views about the crisis and prospects in his home country.

The Norwegian government has long been involved in efforts to promote democracy and development in Myanmar, such as here during the landmark visit of government minister Erik Solheim two years ago. PHOTO: Morten Møst

The Norwegian government has long been involved in efforts to promote democracy and development in Myanmar, such as here during the landmark visit of government minister Erik Solheim two years ago. PHOTO: Morten Møst

The first priority should be to thank the people of Norway for supporting the democracy effort in Myanmar, including the award of a Nobel Peace Prize to Aung San Suu Kyi, support of exiled media and acceptance of thousands of refugees from Myanmar to Norway. Norway is also one of the first western countries that relaxed and finally lifted economic sanctions long imposed against Myanmar. Norway recently announced the cancellation of approximately NOK 3.2 billion in debt held by Myanmar, claimed to be the largest debt cancellation ever made by Norway. Norway also allocated millions of dollars in funding and leads the Myanmar peace support initiative that actively sponsors peace efforts going on in the country. The list goes on and on, all reasons why Myanmar’s head of state should be thanking Norway.

The author of this commentary notes that huge progress has been made in his home country in the past two years, but enormous challenges remain. PHOTO: Morten Møst

The author of this commentary notes that huge progress has been made in his home country in the past two years, but enormous challenges remain. PHOTO: Morten Møst

In an interview with Stavanger Aftenblad, a leading Norwegian newspaper, Stoltenberg said that the invitation of President Thein Sein to Norway is an acknowledgement and support of the reform process in Myanmar. The country has made huge progress, but there also remain challenges ahead to secure a further democratic and peaceful development. Norwegian experiences with democracy, inclusive growth and sustainable natural resource management will be key themes in Stoltenberg’s conversations with Thein Sein.

Myanmar is a country comprised of myriad ethnic groups, and the author argues that resolution of ethnic conflicts is critical if one is to address the country's political crisis. PHOTO: Morten Møst

Myanmar is a country comprised of myriad ethnic groups, and the author argues that resolution of ethnic conflicts is critical if one is to address the country’s political crisis. PHOTO: Morten Møst

While acknowledging reform as it goes ahead and giving financial support to stakeholders taking part in the reform process, it’s important for Norway as a major concerned party and stakeholder itself to prioritize areas that are more critical to solving the country’s crisis. Decades-long conflicts in Myanmar are often showcased by quasi-civilian government as based on economic disparity. However, long-trodden ethnic groups identify the problem rather as a constitutional or structural political problem. Given that 60 percent of Myanmar’s landmass and 40 percent of the country’s population belong to ethnic minorities, the problem of ethnic conflicts is not minor but major. Resolving ethnic conflicts is a must if one is to address the country’s political crisis. Norway, therefore, given its influence, has a lot to offer in this regard. Norway can start by consulting ethnic scholars and representatives who could offer various views and advice about making investments or dealing with the government of Myanmar.

Infrastructure improvements and technological development are also important as Myanmar emerges from decades of isolation. PHOTO: Morten Møst

Infrastructure improvements and technological development are also important as Myanmar emerges from decades of isolation. PHOTO: Morten Møst

The reform in Myanmar has earned surprising applause and approval by the international community, though the road to a desired political settlement is still long. In the beginning, many were skeptical about the motive behind the reforms, but as time has passed and the momentum of reform has taken root, even the staunchest critics changed their stance and started throwing their support behind the reforms – the US, the EU and Burmese exiles are good examples. With the return of exile groups and the skills they bring from abroad, they can start up or take part in thousands of civilian organizations, and many are booming.

One might argue that civilian society inside the country is not qualified or can’t be counted on, and thereby not qualified to receive financial assistance. However, the impact they generate across the society is significant in history. They were the ones who defied British colonial rule prior to independence, and who defied the military regime until recently, and who now are again actively participating in promoting democracy, peace and national reconciliation.  Civilian society, despite some deficiencies, should be encouraged, equipped with training and financed accordingly. With its vast experience in this area, Norway can do an effective job in promoting a much-needed civil society in Myanmar.

Myanmar is rich in natural resources but the road to ethnic peace and political settlements is long. PHOTO: Morten Møst

Myanmar is rich in natural resources but the road to ethnic peace and political settlements is long. PHOTO: Morten Møst

Recent news reports saying that Norwegian companies, such as telecommunication giant Telenor and oil and gas firm Statoil are interested in investing in Myanmar. There are concerns and risks that corruption can strain the reputation of these companies. But the risk is not only about the corruption but the likely increase in the gap between the rich and the poor, along with the animosity of ethnic groups as a result of lack of participation in business decision-making processes.

Myanmar’s needs are many and sundry. All needs are practically impossible at this stage to fulfill, that will require years and years of careful deliberation and effective management by all stakeholders. To prioritize and properly select what might be the best options is also a challenging task. There are risks everywhere across the socio-political and economic spectrum in Myanmar society. Rules and regulations are being improved but there is still no guarantee that the people and especially the officials will abide by them.

As an important stakeholder, the Norwegian government is expected to prioritize the ethnic peace process and economic development by inviting views and advice from various political and ethnic backgrounds. It’s not too late yet to start thinking about strategies that serve the best in the context of a multi-ethnic Myanmar. Investing in ethnic areas as well as empowering a weak and downtrodden population and civilian society where the needs are most desperate, increasing financial assistance to the ongoing peace process, and consulting and allowing more ethnic input in dealings with the Union of Myanmar are imperative towards an ultimate political settlement desired by the people of Myanmar.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: Peter Sang is working on his master’s degree in public administration at the University of Agder in southern Norway.)

Special for Views and News from Norway/Peter Sang

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